By Ray Stern
By Ray Stern
By New Times
By Amy Silverman
By Stephen Lemons
By Stephen Lemons
By Monica Alonzo
By Chris Parker
I'm not sure they've found the solution.
But our leaders are. Phoenix police, police union officials and city politicians have decreed that the way to protect our people in blue is to put two cops in every patrol car.
Until last week, almost every Phoenix police officer rode alone. Not so now. Within days of Atkinson's death, the police department had shuffled schedules and tapped overtime hours to put two cops in every patrol car during what is considered to be the day's most dangerous shift--4 p.m. to 2 a.m. When the Phoenix City Council considers the budget for the next fiscal year later this month, there will be a request for an additional $3.5 million to hire 77 more cops and make the two-to-a-car plan work.
At first, it sounds great. Four eyes are better than two, right? There's safety in numbers. If I were a cop, I'd certainly want another cop--or two or three or a dozen--along for the ride. In fact, I was shocked to learn that, unlike in the movies and on TV, big city cops generally ride alone.
But then I started calling national law-enforcement experts and learned that since World War II there has actually been a shift away from the "buddy system" to one-cop cars--for safety reasons.
The theory, borne out through research, is that it is better to have officers covering more of their turf in more patrol cars rather than riding around together. And fewer cars means longer response time--a crucial factor in protecting the citizenry.
I started to wonder if we're really doing justice to Marc Atkinson's memory. Would a partner have been able to save Atkinson the day he drove into an ambush by three armed drug-dealing suspects? Or would we have had funerals for two cops?
After studying the issue, a reasonable person might conclude that while mourning Atkinson, police and city leaders are using his death as leverage in a campaign to get more funding for a program viewed by many experts as a panacea. In fact, some believe the program could even put cops--and citizens--in greater danger.
At the very least, our top officers and politicians need to do some homework before devoting precious resources to what may be just another emotion-fueled, feel-good program.
Long before Marc Atkinson's death, the Phoenix Law Enforcement Association was pushing for two-officer patrol cars. Terry Sills, the union's president and a 25-year police veteran, says his colleagues want a partner on the road.
"It is nice to know that you have a back-up right beside you," Sills says.
A few weeks ago, at PLEA's request, the Phoenix Police Department began a test program at its South Mountain Precinct, putting two officers in each patrol car. The results of the test aren't in yet, says department spokesman Detective Mike McCullough.
The move is in sharp contrast to a nationwide trend away from two-officer cars, law enforcement experts tell me. Some police departments in the northeast part of the country still use two-officer patrols, as do some precincts of the Los Angeles Police Department. But for the most part, officers ride alone.
As far back as 1967, the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice noted that one-officer cars were safer. A study conducted in 1977 by a group called the Police Foundation is widely considered the best research on the subject.
The Police Foundation, a nonprofit research group based in Washington, D.C., studied the San Diego Police Department and concluded that although officers showed a slight preference for two-officer cars, the one-officer cars better served the community. Economics was a factor; the study noted that it was easier to cover the community with one-officer cars. But safety was said to be better with one-officer cars, too. The study noted that there were fewer reported incidents of resisting arrest with one-officer cars, and that two-officer cars did not reduce the odds that an officer might be assaulted or injured.
That 1977 study is still widely cited today, says Louis Mayo, a management consultant and executive director of the nonprofit American Police Association in Washington, D.C.
Mayo is a strong proponent of the one-officer car.
"A one-officer car is more cautious than a two-officer car," he says. "Also, it's standard procedure in most police departments that whenever an officer is dispatched to a situation that has any potential volatility, a back-up car is sent, so you will have two or more officers on the scene. But in the meantime, I should emphasize that most police assignments are not for violent encounters, and in many cases it may be to take a routine report on a past theft. Well, to have two officers standing around doing that is not a good use of your personnel."
Mayo concludes, "It doesn't result in more officers in the field, because let's face it: Your police budget is limited like all other budgets. But for a given budget, you have a much more efficient use of your police officers in one-officer cars than you do in two-officer cars."