By Amy Silverman
By Olivia LaVecchia
By Monica Alonzo and Stephen Lemons
By Chris Parker
By Michael Lacey
By Weston Phippen
Ford built the police cruiser that engulfed the Phoenix officer in flames when he was rear-ended during a routine traffic stop in 2001. A Chandler officer died in a similar fire the next year.
At issue: the design of the fuel tank in Ford's Crown Victoria. The tank sits unguarded in front of the rear axle, which collapses and punctures the tank in a collision. Ford was villainized as a cop killer because the company continued to sell the cruiser to police departments without fixing the tanks even though 12 officers nationwide had already died because of the problem.
You might remember that last fall, the City of Phoenix and the Phoenix Police Department announced with much fanfare that they had found a simple solution. At a cost of $1.5 million, Phoenix would begin immediately installing high-tech puncture-proof bladders inside the fuel tanks of all 735 of its Ford Crown Vic police vehicles. Voilà: No more explosive incontinence.
Guess what? It wasn't a simple solution.
It turns out that the folks at the city have quietly been suffering through a year of bladder problems. Indeed, according to an internal memo, city officials are now considering dumping the refitted Fords altogether.
"The issue that finally eliminated Ford gasoline-fueled vehicles, as a consideration for this fiscal year's patrol car purchase, is the fact that the City of Phoenix cannot continue to install fuel bladders in gasoline-fueled cars," Lopker wrote. "The modification violates federal law. The car will no longer meet the federal emissions standard and Ford has withdrawn its promised support for fixing the problem once the bladder has been installed."
Even though the October 31 memo makes it clear that the city will no longer buy Crown Vics, Lopker told me last week that the Fords may still be in the mix if the company that makes the bladders can fix the emissions problem. If not, then the city will have no choice but to go to a different car maker.
The bladders are made by a company called Fuel Safe, which, for 30 years, has built specially lined fuel tanks for NASCAR vehicles. Stock cars go fast. They crash. But they don't blow up very often. Fuel Safe bladders seemed to be the solution for city officials trying to save officers' lives as well as their investment in Ford's Crown Vic.
All 735 of Phoenix's police cruisers were fitted with the bladders last year. Chandler, Scottsdale and other Valley police agencies also jumped on the bladder wagon, making the Valley's police agencies the nation's guinea pig for testing bladder technology.
Ford pooh-poohed the plan. The company said its tests showed the bladders often failed. Ford said it would design its own fuel-tank safety system that would be operational by the 2005 Crown Vic. But more realistic estimates placed the technology on 2006 models.
Phoenix decided that was too long to wait.
Phoenix police and city officials sent bladder-fitted cars for testing to see if they passed federal emissions standards. Ford offered to pick up part of the price of the $30,000 tests.
Oops. Bad news. The modified Crown Vic passed two tests, but failed the feds' third, extremely rigorous test. Apparently, the Fuel Safe tank had a small hole that emitted fuel vapor instead of cycling it back through the vehicle's carbon filter.
No big deal, everyone thought. There must be a way to run a hose from the hole back to the filter. The city notified the Environmental Protection Agency and the state Department of Environmental Quality that the cruisers were slightly out of compliance with emissions standards and explained that it was working to fix the problem. EPA and ADEQ gave Phoenix some time to come up with a fix because, obviously, Phoenix was working in good faith toward an important public-safety goal.
"We wanted Ford to design a fix for us," Mike Lopker says. "Our first choice was to have the vehicle's manufacturer do the work. And it was very clear that they had given us an open-ended promise to do the work. Everything seemed very simple."
But then, something strange happened, something Lopker and his boss, public works director Mark Leonard, still can't explain.
All of a sudden, three months later, Ford changed its mind.
"They said they would help us, then boom, they said they would not," Lopker says. "Yes, it was extremely frustrating. I'm still not sure what they were up to."
I've got to wonder if Ford's attorneys realized that by being good guys to Phoenix, the company was walking into a legal minefield. If the company succeeded at making the Fuel Safe bladder street legal, the question could then be raised in court: Why the hell hadn't Ford done this before all these officers blew up?
Complicating the matter is a little-known fact in the bladder saga, a fact Ford has gone to bizarre lengths to deny: