The summer sky drizzles rain as Arden Kucate and Theresa Pasqual drive toward a nondescript field in eastern Arizona. On this overcast day in August, they are heading to a place their ancestors called home centuries ago.

There, an adobe compound, known as Amity Pueblo, toppled by time, is a mound of rubble disguised by a carpet of shrubs and grass.

When they arrive, Pasqual navigates her truck just a few feet past an opening in the feeble fence surrounding the area when Kucate abruptly tells her to stop.

Bone fragments, jewelry (including a broken shell bracelet, top right), and pottery are remnants of an ancient adobe civilization devastated when Arizona Game and Fish started construction on a community fishing pond.
Bone fragments, jewelry (including a broken shell bracelet, top right), and pottery are remnants of an ancient adobe civilization devastated when Arizona Game and Fish started construction on a community fishing pond.
The X on the map shows the location of the desecration near Eagar.
New Times map
The X on the map shows the location of the desecration near Eagar.
Octavius Seowtewa (left) and Cornell Tsalate are among the Zuni tribe's high-ranking religious leaders who practice traditional medicine and spiritual ceremonies.
Octavius Seowtewa (left) and Cornell Tsalate are among the Zuni tribe's high-ranking religious leaders who practice traditional medicine and spiritual ceremonies.
Zuni Governor Arlen Quetawki handles tribal business as he talks about his frustration with government officials after the desecration of their ancestors' graves.
Zuni Governor Arlen Quetawki handles tribal business as he talks about his frustration with government officials after the desecration of their ancestors' graves.
Rubble and stone mark the site of Amity Pueblo, an ancient 60-room adobe community toppled by time.
Rubble and stone mark the site of Amity Pueblo, an ancient 60-room adobe community toppled by time.
Corn Mountain, a sacred mesa in Pueblo of Zuni
Corn Mountain, a sacred mesa in Pueblo of Zuni
Arden Kucate, head tribal councilman, after his second visit to Amity Pueblo.
Arden Kucate, head tribal councilman, after his second visit to Amity Pueblo.

He spots a bone in their path.

Kucate and Pasqual slide out of the pickup, stunned into silence as they gaze upon not just that bone but thousands of shattered bones and artifacts strewn across acres.

See a slideshow to accompany this story.

"It was like walking a coastal beach and seeing the different seashells scattered on the sand," Pasqual recalls. "The whiteness of the bones was in clear contrast to the rich, brown soil."

Bones — including skulls, ribs, femurs, jaws, and fingers — from at least 10 ancient adults and adolescents were ripped from their graves, broken and scattered by bulldozers and backhoes. The devastation occurred in late April 2011 when the Arizona Game and Fish Department started construction on a public fishing pond.

When Kucate and Pasqual see some of the remains in piles of dirt scooped out of the ground, disbelief clashes with a welling sense of sorrow.

"It was so sad looking at all the remains, lying there," remembers Kucate, head tribal councilman for the Pueblo of Zuni.

He and Pasqual come upon a broken, octagon-shape tablet. They look around for the rest of its pieces but find none. Kucate wonders what happened to them, suspicious that looters already may have claimed remnants of his ancestors and priceless shards of pottery and jewelry, some of which may date back to 900 A.D.

"I don't think anyone was prepared for what we saw or for the emotions that we felt," relates Pasqual, a member of the Acoma tribe, and the Indian community's historic preservation officer. "It was quiet, very quiet, on that field."

The pair are part of a 10-member convoy of representatives from several tribes — the Zuni, the Hopi, the Navajo Nation, and the Acoma — who arrive in the town of Eagar on this gloomy day to examine the violated burial site. They are accompanied by 14 state and federal officials.

As the pair continue to survey the devastation, they choke back anger and frustration. A single thought races through their minds: How could this have happened?

One colossal misstep after another by government agencies transformed what was planned to be a two-acre family fishing pond in a tiny Apache County town into a swath of sprawling desecration.

It started with Arizona Game and Fish officials relying on an archaeologist who was not officially certified to survey the land for potential historic properties and offer advice during construction. They allowed unsupervised high school students to operate heavy earth-moving machinery over more than nine acres — just yards away from sacred Amity Pueblo. Even when workers saw bones and artifacts erupting from the ground, state officials tell New Times, the archaeologist gave them the okay to keep going.

Construction started on April 27, 2011, and wasn't halted until May 6. During that time, human remains and artifacts were dispersed over nine acres of land.

"We should have known better, but we didn't," admits Arizona Game and Fish Deputy Director Gary Hovatter.

He and other officials compounded the damage by giving short shrift to laws that are supposed to protect historic homes and human remains of the first nations to occupy what has become the United States.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which agreed to pay for part of the now-canceled pond project, failed to comply with a federal law that, in part, requires it to examine work areas for precious remnants of history before digging begins. If there's the potential to encounter such artifacts, agency officials legally are obligated to come up with a plan to minimize damage and consult with interested parties — in this case, surrounding Indian tribes.

Nearly two years after the fact, Steve Robertson, chief of Wildlife and Sports Fish Restoration, a program within Fish and Wildlife, says federal officials are "working with Arizona Game and Fish and hoping to engage the tribes."

There has been one meeting, in August at the Trail Riders Restaurant in Eagar, and a few letters exchanged, but little has been accomplished.

Instead, the discussion has been marked by disagreement over what steps should be taken first. And who's going to pay for them. Fingers have been pointed, and the tribes feel that state and federal officials don't fully appreciate the spiritual connection between the prehistoric bones and area tribes, including the Zuni and Acoma, each with reservations in New Mexico and ancestors who dwelt in what is now Arizona.

Some of the bones, collected improperly, are piled in a box stored in an Eagar Town Hall office. The rest, visible on the surface of the site, were slated for collection, but two of the four tribes objected that the proposed plan didn't go far enough. Zuni and Hopi tribal leaders wanted piles of dirt sifted so all the bones could be collected. Since such a plan wasn't under official consideration during the single meeting, everything stalled.

Despite state and federal officials' bluster about righting the wrongs done to the tribes with the desecration, their forefathers' bones remain tangled in bureaucracy, exposed to looters and erosion as winter is set to arrive.

Zuni leaders believe the spirits of the unearthed are now troubled and will continue to be until they are repatriated with "Mother Earth."

Says Cornell Tsalate, a medicine man and high-ranking member of the tribe's religious hierarchy, "In our way, there are still connections to our ancestors who lived [in Amity Pueblo]. These individuals are not resting in peace."

It's a miracle that the Zuni people weren't extinguished from the Southwestern landscape, says Octavius Seowtewa, leader of the Galaxy Fraternity, one of the tribe's secret medicine societies.

"The first Spanish explorers came here and really put the Zuni in a situation where we almost lost our culture," he says. "Our religious ceremonies and practices were impeded by . . . the invaders. Some of our sacred ceremonies had to go underground to protect what we had."

About 7,000 tribal members live in Pueblo of Zuni, 35 miles south of Gallup, New Mexico. It's a community of peaceful, hardworking people. The landscape contains modest homes interspersed with others worn badly by time and poverty. There are only a few eateries, including one pizzeria, in town, as well as retail shops that feature the authentic work of Indian artists — paintings, stone carvings, woven baskets, bead work, and silver and turquoise jewelry. The surrounding desert landscape is dotted by sacred, colorful mesas.

Tribal leaders and various historical accounts suggest that the Zuni were the first native people visited by the Spaniards in 1539. The newcomers forced the Indians to supply them with "corn, women, and labor and [were] punished harshly for practicing their religion," according to the Native American Encyclopedia by Barry M. Pritzker.

The Zuni are, after thousands of years, still one of the most traditional of the pueblo tribes. They have maintained the integrity of their unique and isolated language — save for a few words borrowed from other tribes — for at least 7,000 years. And their spiritual and religious practices, which involve kachina spirits, are a way of life.

None of the outsiders who settled on their land could stymie the "Zuni Way," a belief system that for centuries has been anchored to the sanctity of ancestors.

"What's happened [at Amity Pueblo] is very detrimental for the tribe, from a cultural perspective, because directly north of where this desecration occurred, linked through the Little Colorado River, is a place we know as Zuni Heaven," Arden Kucate says. "It's a very sacred place. When we come to our end-of-life path, that's where we go. Our ancestors have been connected to it since time immemorial."

Zuni religious leaders make a four-day, 60-mile trek on foot or horseback every four years to Zuni Heaven. Congregants follow, but only to a point. No one but those with "high authority" may go up into the mountain.

Prayers and songs are offered at this "gateway of spirituality" to achieve balance with the Earth — they pray for rain, plentiful harvests, long lives, and prosperity. And not just for the Zuni, but for the entire world, Kucate says.

The spirits, too, are invited.

When a member of the Zuni dies, the body remains at home for a day and is washed and dressed by female relatives. When the body is buried, clothes, blankets, and other items are interred with it for the afterlife journey.

The spirit remains in the home for four days before blowing out an open door and finding an eternal home in one of several places, including Zuni Heaven.

"Once the individual is in the ground, prayers are said. And when they dig a grave, it's not just a grave — it's their house for life, the beyond life," Kucate says. "If the grave is disturbed, it means the individual is disturbed from where he or she was sent to meet with . . . ancestors."

Such disruptions can lead to paranormal sightings, the return of spirits, and unexplained phenomena, tribal members say. And the Zuni have no prayers for reburying someone excavated from the ground.

"When things like this happen," Kucate says, "it really hurts us because no one even asked [what we thought] until after they've done the damage. It's leaving us natives out of our own aboriginal lands."

That sentiment is all too common among Indian tribes across the country. Like most native Americans, the Zuni tried to defend their land, along with their traditional ways. They participated in the Pueblo Revolt in 1680, driving the Spanish settlers out of the region. But facing raids from surrounding Apache, Hopi, and Navajo, they joined forces with the Spanish militia, Mexican troops, and, later, the U.S. Army.

Despite alliances with the United States in battle, the Zuni lost most of their tribal lands to American colonization. When the United States established official boundaries of the Zuni reservation in 1877, it encompassed less than 3 percent of the 15 million acres of the tribe's aboriginal lands.

In 1978, Congress passed a law allowing the Zuni to sue the federal government for taking tribal land without compensation. The Zuni filed several claims, and it wasn't until 1990 that President George H.W. Bush signed a law to settle the claims for $25 million.

Settling the disaster at Amity Pueblo also may take years, says Game and Fish Deputy Director Hovatter, the only state or federal official in this debacle who accepts culpability.

He says he wants to reach an agreement but is hamstrung because the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is the entity that legally must engage in "government-to-government consultation" with sovereign Indian nations.

Hovatter says it's the state's "intention to try to find a way to return the remains we found back to that location. That's the best we're going to be able to do. I have tried to look everybody in the eye and tell them that we apologize."

Zuni Governor Arlen Quetawki, in a September 25 letter, questioned the sincerity of apologies to his people. He told state and federal officials that anything less than gathering and replacing all human remains is "insulting to the Zuni people because it trivializes our expressed concerns about the desecration of our ancestors' graves and the Zuni people's relationship to the spiritual realm."

Hovatter says plucking only what bones were visible on the site's surface never was intended as a final solution — it was just an initial step.

"It had been agreed [during an August 13 meeting] that before going to that level of detail — sifting through dirt piles — there needed to be" a consultation between the feds and the tribes because there wasn't unanimity about whether sifting all the dirt needed to be done, he says.

For Quetawki, the tribe's position "on this issue is non-negotiable."

Hovatter responded on October 4, telling the governor that a plan for fetching the surface bones "reflects the decision" of all participants at the Eagar consultation meeting as "an initial, tangible action" toward remediation.

"The fact that the situation on the ground has not changed is not this department's fault," he says. "It's our fault that the situation exists in the first place. I've never stepped back from taking responsibility . . . but the Zuni changed their mind. There was no agreement in that room for what the Zuni expected to be done. Unless we get all the tribes and players on the same page, there is no way for us to proceed."

Why not just call the other tribes to see whether they concur with the Zuni?

"I can't be a substitute for the federal government," Hovatter says.

Zuni and Acoma tribal officials tell New Times that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuses to understand the tribes' concerns. Which doesn't mean the federal agency has been silent on the issue. It has worked hard to shift blame — to insist that other agencies must bear the legal and financial costs of the desert desecration.

The fishing pond and the ancient Indian ruins were doomed from the beginning.

All the players involved knew that Amity Pueblo was about 100 feet from the angling spot that Arizona Game and Fish wanted to create. But knowing this did not trigger compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act.

Section 106 of the law requires federal officials to examine project sites for potential cultural and historic items and to consult with interested parties if it's suspected that treasures might be damaged. The feds are supposed to come up with a "what if" plan in case they run into something significant — graves, for example.

And it all should happen before any ground is broken.

It didn't.

Instead, the feds informally passed responsibility to the state Game and Fish Department, which in turn passed it to the Natural Resources Conservation Service, a branch of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that was lending its archaeologist to the project.

Two years ago, none of the government officials involved wrote agreements — as required by law — about who would be responsible for following through on the federal preservation law. Yet, today, they have written several exchanges about who is to blame.

Benjamin Tuggle, federal Fish and Wildlife regional director, admits only to a "procedural" error by his agency for passing the buck on federal preservation compliance. But, he wrote in an October 9 letter, the NRCS "bears some, if not all, legal and financial responsibility."

He criticized the archaeologist employed.

"The record indicates that the NRCS archaeologist had to have seen the damage caused, [but] the Arizona State Historic Preservation Office was not contacted, and [the] project was not halted when the first artifacts were found based on the advice given by NRCS," he wrote.

Tuggle also blamed the State Preservation Office for failing to research the area before it signed off on the project. If it had, he writes, it would have realized that "historic properties would be affected, and subsequent damages to the Amity Pueblo . . . would never had occurred."

State Historic Preservation deputy officer Ann Howard fired back with a letter on October 24: "It is not the responsibility of the SHPO to conduct background research, and we believe [Tuggle] inaccurately tries to cast blame on our office."

Howard noted that her office "did not approve any design plans for pond construction." She said the preservation office's representative, compliance specialist James Cogswell, told the federal archaeologist and state Game and Fish authorities that "pond construction [must be] monitored by a [qualified] archaeologist" and that both representatives agreed.

But that isn't what happened on the ground.

In February 2011, Miles Gilbert, the NRCS archaeologist, and Kelly Meyer, a fish specialist with state Game and Fish, went out to survey the land just north of Amity Pueblo.

The survey was supposed to be conducted by specially certified archaeologists. Neither man was specially certified. In his report, Gilbert submitted that no historical properties would be affected by the project and noted that construction would avoid the Amity Pueblo.

The State Historic Preservation Office signed off on Gilbert's findings.

Hovatter says the archaeologist wasn't certified to work on the project and that — in violation of state law — neither Game and Fish nor the federal NRCS obtained a permit from the Arizona State Museum before sending an archaeologist to root around on state-owned land.

Hovatter disputes that his agency's fish specialist, Meyer, played a role in the cultural survey. A field report and a letter submitted to the Historic Preservation Office notes that he did assist Gilbert in field work that involves scanning the ground for signs of history or clues of cultural value.

It appears to be yet another error, one that helps explain how the ill-fated project veered so far off course.

Hovatter bemoans a lack of guidance from the State Historic Preservation Office. He says his agency submitted paperwork to officials there, and preservation authorities didn't "review the name of the [federal] archaeologist we submitted" against the list of certified archaeologists.

"If they had, we would have stopped and gotten a qualified archaeologist," he says. "We submitted our documentation, they reviewed it, and they said we were good to go. [That's] supposed to mean something."

Keisha Morten, director of the federal NRCS in Arizona, blames her office's failure to obtain an archaeological-review permit on Game and Fish's not telling NRCS that the federal archaeologist would be working on state-owned land. She also defends her archaeologist's qualifications to perform cultural-review work, even though he isn't on the state's list of approved archaeologists.

Those were the first in a smattering of government failures that Zuni Governor Quetawki doesn't understand.

"What is unclear is how 9.1 acres of land could be disturbed . . . without backhoe operators' immediately recognizing the importance of what they were disturbing," he wrote on June 10 to the Arizona State Museum. "It suggests that someone . . . had knowledge of the ongoing disturbance and either chose to ignore it or consciously made a decision to authorize a continued disturbance."

Lending to the problem in the field, Quetawki says, was that state Game and Fish wanted to get the project done for "next to nothing." It contracted with the Northern Arizona Vocational Institute of Technology to provide students to run the heavy machinery. When the students started digging on April 27, 2011, according to state and federal correspondence, there wasn't an archaeologist or anyone from Game and Fish on site.

For two days, the workers were unsupervised. Equipment started exposing artifacts and human bone fragments, but the young operators kept going. They scraped vegetation and topsoil from a nine-acre swath — digging more than six feet deep in the proposed pond's western end and about four feet deep in its eastern end. When the NRCS archaeologist visited the site, he waved them on, believing that the bones and artifacts emerging were simply bits of previously disturbed materials, according to Hovatter. Construction activity continued under fish specialist Meyer.

Some records suggest that archaeologist Gilbert was on site at least three times and advised that the work could continue — despite the obvious ribbons of white bones swirling through the dirt. But Keisha Morten, Gilbert's boss, says he made only a single visit to the site, on May 2, and advised workers to stop construction. She says it was state officials who didn't follow her archaeologist's recommendation.

But Hovatter says it was his employee, Meyer, who decided that it was too much — the endless churning of artifacts and human bone out of the ground. He disregarded the archaeologist's opinion, Hovatter says, and called his supervisors at Game and Fish, who halted construction.

Officials' inability to agree on facts — who conducted the cultural survey, how many times the archaeologist visited the site, what advice he gave, and who stopped the project — doesn't bode well for the Indian tribes who want to resolve the emotionally charged situation.

The officials' posturing also suggests that each may be trying to minimize his or her particular agency's legal and financial liability.

It's clear that at the first sight of bone or native pottery, the workers were legally required to stop and notify the Arizona State Museum, which administers Arizona's Antiquities Act, a law meant to preserve the state's heritage.

Instead, the desecration of the ancient burial site went on over a 10-day period.

Excavation ended up going within the artificial 100-foot barrier that workers were supposed to stay outside to protect Amity Pueblo. And, at some point, bones were picked up from the construction site, put in a box, and taken to the Eagar Town Hall, where they remain. Their locations weren't cataloged, complicating approved archaeologists' ability to return them to their rightful graves.

When the dust settled and the workers were cleared from the fields, Arizona Game and Fish hired Northland Research, a Tempe-based team of archaeological and environmental consultants, to assess the damage and establish detailed records of the area.

Northland's 58-page report, published in April, reveals grim details about the activity around Amity Pueblo.

"Tens of thousands of artifacts were visible on the surface, [including] ceramics, flaked stone, shell, and faunal bone," according to the Northland report. "Human bone was also visible on the surface throughout all of the disturbed areas."

Inspection of just the surfaces of the dirt piles on the construction site "revealed . . . hundreds to thousands of artifacts, as well as numerous fragments of human bone."

The report went on: "It is clear that many additional artifacts and bones are located within these piles."

The Northland archaeologists focused on larger pieces of human bone and documented 46 pieces representing prehistoric burials in shallow graves from at least three individuals, perhaps four. They also located at least six other potential graves in the disturbed area.

While some skeletons were mostly intact, others were "more heavily disturbed and, in fact, may have been entirely removed from their original burial locations and redeposited" during excavation.

"There is a strong likelihood that more than these 10 burials" have been disturbed.

It's hardly Arizona's prescription for how to deal with human remains.

Todd Pitezel, the State Museum's assistant curator of archaeology, says the law requires that human remains be treated with dignity and respect.

"In my opinion, they're not being treated with dignity and respect [in this situation]," he says. "This is a spiritual matter for [the tribes]. It's pretty disturbing. And we're just sitting here."

Had state and federal laws been followed, the incident at Amity Pueblo never would have happened, says Pitezel, who handles repatriation of human remains for the museum.

"They didn't follow the laws, and now it's a disaster," he says.

He says there isn't much his office can do.

"According to the federal process, [U.S.] Fish and Wildlife Services is obligated to respond to the tribal letters and their wishes," he says. "And that's what we're waiting on. Whether they do something, it remains to be seen."

Kurt Dongoske, principal investigator and preservation officer for the Zuni, says his impression is that state and federal government representatives are "hoping, if the tribes don't make any more waves, this will go away . . . and they won't have to spend a dime."

Federal officials sent a letter on September 14 to the Zuni and the other tribes involved, asking for input on a work plan that Governor Quetawki would denounce just a few weeks later. He hasn't heard from them since.

"Their proposed fix is not to our standards," he tells New Times. "Deal appropriately with this, that's what we're asking . . . The damage has already been done. Now, how can we work together to fix it?"

Charna Lefton, spokeswoman for Fish and Wildlife, says the federal agency isn't to blame for all the time that has elapsed. She says the discovery of the human remains and artifacts happened in May 2011 but that Fish and Wildlife was "only notified" last April — nearly a year later.

However, a timeline created by her own agency contradicts Lefton's claim:

"August 18, 2011. FWS received an e-mail update from [Arizona Game and Fish.] This update stated that archaeologist issues had been resolved. [We] were unaware that archaeological issues existed prior to . . . receipt of this e-mail."

If federal Fish and Wildlife received an "update" in August 2011, it stands to reason that some other notification was made before that.

When pressed about the discrepancy, Stephen Robertson, chief of the program under Fish and Wildlife that issued Arizona the grant for the pond, says his office "had no idea of the nature or extent of those issues, and we believed that they were minor in nature and had been resolved."

He says it wasn't until April that he "became aware of the gravity and extent of the disturbance."

Howard says her agency — the State Historic Preservation Office — believes it's "long past time for finger-pointing and blame-shifting to have ended in this process. It is our opinion that continuing down this road can only delay the process and further antagonize those who are involved."

Pitezel agrees that the internal bickering "among parties as to proper federal procedure is delaying tribal requests that the disturbed human remains be dealt with immediately."

Some Zuni talk about lawsuits. Quetawki talks about hosting a "sacred sites summit" with state and federal officials about consulting with tribes on the front end, instead of further straining relationships by waiting until damage is done.

"We want to stress that those agencies who have these types of projects work with tribes," Quetawki says. "Unfortunately, the mentality is, 'We can put them aside and move on.'"

But if history is any indication, the Zuni can stand the test of time.

"We are Zuni. We do not disappear. We are still here," says medicine man Cornell Tsalate. "The [state and U.S. agencies] make and break their own rules. It's a shame . . . they think they have a right to do that, but in reality, they will have to suffer the consequences."

In a matter-of-fact tone, he warns, "In our way, if you do something wrong, the spirits might not be after you, but they will come to your family, your relatives, the people you love the most, and make it even."

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This is wrong on so many levels. The handful of people who hold a share of the blame are quick to dismiss it as someone else's mistake instead of taking accountability for their wrongdoing when that's the bare minimum expected of them at this point. It's a disgrace. The most disgusting part about this is not the excavation but the number of people who had the opportunity to stop the damage but chose to look the other way. Native people are constantly ignored and dismissed. They've been battered by this country and its policies from the very beginning because they were never made to benefit them. We natives have been suffering emotionally, culturally and physically since colonization and this goes to show how our relationship with the mainstream society continues to regress and spiral into oblivion.


And Faux News says there's a war on Christmas - what a crock!  Here's where the real culture wars are being fought.




THIS EARTH IS PRECIOUSHow can you buy or sell the sky, the warmth of the land? The idea is strange to us. If we do not own the freshness of the air and sparkle of the water, how can you buy them?ALL SACREDEvery part of this earth is sacred to my people.Every shining pine needle, every sandy shore, every mist in the dark woods, every clearing and humming insect is holy in the memory and experience of my people. The sap which courses through the trees carries the memories of the red man.The white man's dead forget the country of their birth when they go to walk among the stars. Our dead never forget this beautiful earth, for it is the mother of the red man.We are part of the earth and it is part of us.The perfumed flowers are our sisters; the deer, the horse, the great eagle, these are our brothers.The rocky crests, the juices in the meadows, the body heat of the pony, and man--all belong to the same family.NOT EASYSo, when the Great Chief in Washington sends word that he wishes to buy land, he asks much of us. The Great Chief sends word he will reserve us a place so that we can live comfortably to ourselves.He will be our father and we will be his children. So we will consider your offer to buy our land.But it will not be easy. For this land is sacred to us.This shining water that moves in the streams and rivers is not just water but the blood of our ancestors.If we sell you land, you must remember that it is sacred, and you must teach your children that it is sacred and that each ghostly reflection in the clear water of the lakes tells of events and memories in the life of my people.The water's murmur is the voice of my father's father.KINDNESSThe rivers are our brothers, they quench our thirst. The rivers carry our canoes, and feed our children. If we sell you our land, you must remember, and teach your children, that the rivers are our brothers, and yours, and you must henceforth give the rivers the kindness you would give any brother.We know that the white man does not understand our ways. One portion of land is the same to him as the next, for he is a stranger who comes in the night and takes from the land whatever he needs.The earth is not his brother, but his enemy, and when he has conquered it, he moves on.He leaves his father's graves behind, and he does not care.He kidnaps the earth from his children, and he does not care.His father's grave, and his children's birthright, are forgotten. He treats his mother, the earth, and his brother, the sky, as things to be bought, plundered, sold like sheep or bright beads.His appetite will devour the earth and leave behind only a desert.I do not know. Our ways are different from your ways.The sight of your cities pains the eyes of the red man. But perhaps it is because the red man is a savage and does not understand.There is no quiet place in the white man's cities. No place to hear the unfurling of leaves in spring, or the rustle of an insect's wings.But perhaps it is because I am a savage and do not understand.The clatter only seems to insult the ears. And what is there to life if a man cannot hear the lonely cry of the whippoorwill or the arguments of the frogs around a pond at night? I am a red man and do not understand.The Indian prefers the soft sound of the wind darting over the face of a pond, and the smell of the wind itself, cleaned by a midday rain, or scented with the pinion pine.PRECIOUSThe air is precious to the red man, for all things share the same breath--the beast, the tree, the man, they all share the same breath.The white man does not seem to notice the air he breathes.Like a man dying for many days, he is numb to the stench.But if we sell you our land, you must remember that the air is precious to us, that the air shares its spirit with all the life it supports. The wind that gave our grandfather his first breath also receives his last sigh.And if we sell you our land, you must keep it apart and sacred, as a place where even the white man can go to taste the wind that is sweetened by the meadow's flowers.ONE CONDITIONSo we will consider your offer to buy our land. If we decide to accept, I will make one condition: The white man must treat the beasts of this land as his brothers.I am a savage and I do not understand any other way.I've seen a thousand rotting buffaloes on the prairie, left by the white man who shot them from a passing train.I am a savage and I do not understand how the smoking iron horse can be more important than the buffalo that we kill only to stay alive.What is man without the beasts? If all the beasts were gone, man would die from a great loneliness of spirit.For whatever happens to the beasts, soon happens to man. All things are connected.THE ASHESYou must teach your children that the ground beneath their feet is the ashes of your grandfathers. So that they will respect the land, tell your children that the earth is rich with the lives of our kin.Teach your children what we have taught our children, that the earth is our mother.Whatever befalls the earth befalls the sons of the earth. If men spit upon the ground, they spit upon themselves.This we know: The earth does not belong to man; man belongs to the earth. This we know.All things are connected like the blood which unites one family. All things are connected.Whatever befalls the earth befalls the sons of the earth.Man did not weave the web of life: he is merely a strand in it.Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself.Even the white man, whose God walks and talks with him as friend to friend, cannot be exempt from the common destiny.We may be brothers after all.We shall see.One thing we know, which the white man may one day discover, our God is the same God. You may think now that you own Him as you wish to own our land; but you cannot. He is the God of man, and His compassion is equal for the red man and the white.This earth is precious to Him, and to harm the earth is to heap contempt on its Creator.The whites too shall pass; perhaps sooner than all other tribes. Contaminate your bed, and you will one night suffocate in your own waste.But in your perishing you will shine brightly, fired by the strength of God who brought you to this land and for some special purpose gave you dominion over this land and over the red man.That destiny is a mystery to us, for we do not understand when the buffalo are all slaughtered, the wild horses are tamed, the secret corners of the forest heavy with scent of many men, and the view of the ripe hills blotted by talking wires.Where is the thicket? Gone.Where is the eagle? Gone.The end of living and the beginning of survival.Patrick. -- Responses Sought --[Given the seeming non-sequitur relationship between title and topic here, perhaps an explanation is warranted.To begin with, this eMail wasn't written as a journal entry. I just tacked it in here because it fit so well. Back when I was still a Microserf, the weekly task of organising a table at the local beer hall large enough to hold that Friday's contingent of over-worked and thirsty techno-dweebies somehow fell into my hands. It was probably just something that needed to be done and when volunteers were called for I forgot to step backward with everyone else. "We have a winner!"So every Friday around noon, as soon as I got into work, I'd send out practically company-wide eMail (the Vancouver office had 


You, like many people of this world, are ignorant of the information and history contained in these sites.  All you know is the consumer oriented existence created for you by your corporate masters.  Over 20,000 years of human history, knowledge of traditional medicines, and just plain how to live your daily life on this planet in a comfortable manner WITHOUT MODERN TECHNOLOGY are retained by the act of preserving and respecting these sites.  At any moment, the Sun could reach out and touch this planet or any other possible calamity could occur (nuclear war, biological disaster, global warming, etc.) could occur and the survivors will need this information.  It is the ability to use our intelligence (primarily the ability to recognize and manipulate patterns) to adapt that has served humans well over all these years.  The relatively new technology (less than 200 years) that we use today may not be with us in the near future and we will need the information conserved by indigenous peoples throughout the world to survive and thrive on this wonderful planet.  While I'm sorry for you in your ignorance, you can resolve to learn more about native religions, traditions and rituals and stop treating other cultures with disrespect.  I urge you to do so.


Sedona has had some Sinagua sites getting looted right under the noses of the Red Rock Rangers...Less than 1.5 miles from the USFS HQ...this site was looted. (photos are at the end of the youtube vid)USFS has full time Rangers squadron but the clowns never leave the office...and even a full time archeologist on the clock...FBI up in Flagstaff chasing Indians and home-made beer! Meanwhile, clay pots and projectile points being sold on Ebay. Sinagua goes back 200 years +/- 500 years


This is outrageous I wonder what would happen to me if I rented a bulldozer and went to these peoples local graveyard and started scraping up peoples grandparents and great grandparents graves. I wonder what's going to happen to the people responsible for this appalling act. Why didn't they stop when they saw there were human remains. This land clearly is a sacred burial ground to the Zuni people. I know this place was a village that was taken by the Spanish and not returned by the Americans. The Zuni people are alive and well and still have their culture intact they still speak their ancient language they still have their religion and  they believe in respect for all people. This is not the first time in that area this has happened. A schoolteacher from the town of St. John's just a few miles north of  Eagar took his students on a field trip to raid sacred Zuni shrines on Zuni land. There's also a great deal of grave robbing by people looking for artifacts like pottery and jewelry. This is been going on for quite some time and needs to be stopped!


Let me begin by expressing my dismay at this inexcusable desecration of human remains.  The failure of the many agencies involved, both State and Federal, to follow common and well established guidelines for cultural resource management, as well as blatant disregard for existing law, is shameful.  I hope a thorough review will focus both on individual and institutional culpability, and will reach to the proper level of oversight, rather than scapegoating those at the bottom of the decision making process.  It is clear that institutional reform is necessary for the future, including formal designation of responsibility among the contributing parties.  This project never should have proceeded to the ground disturbance stage without a Memorandum of Agreement in place to allow for  "unexpected discoveries".  In the meantime, plans for reinterment should be the priority for all concerned, not job security or budgetary considerations. 


This is what happens when you have incompetent people in charge.  Arizona has many natural resources and sacred sites that need to be protected for the enjoyment of future generations as well.  They need to fire those people which is what would happen if they had real jobs, not government jobs where an, "we should have known better.." is enough of an excuse to give you a pass.

Pinche Wes
Pinche Wes

My ex is Zuni. I hate to hear shit like this.


It's a matter of respect. They do not force their culture on others, there is no reason for others to force theirs on them...unfortunatly the "others" always seem to do the forcing...


Well, when you have cultures who seem to be obsessed with death, I guess they do get upset when bones get strewn around. Those of us who are actually obsessed with life don't particularly see the problem.

I personally would like to see *ALL* graveyards the world over dug up, the bones crushed/cremated/whatever, and the useless land put to use growing food or for other purposes...

ExpertShot topcommenter

Reminds me of the joke about the famous rabbi who prayed at the Wailing Wall every day for over 60 years.  When asked what it was like he said "It's like talking to a brick wall."!


@carinad_7 mmmm . . . why R there so many wannabe's polluting places like Sedona?  Now people are owning minute amounts of heritage whereas a couple generations back people pretended to be anything but, NDN?  Disgusting that the only part of our government/business community that does work effectively is the part that separates wage workers from their hard-earned money and the rubber stamping of the criminality by those holding office.  We are all becoming NDN's quickly now.  Conversely, I am seeing some wins lately and been laughing that if I need an attorney I don't want a Jewish one, I want an NDN one!  The poisonous legacy of socio-psychic destruction IS very real and IS passed on to next generation - I get it - but still there are bright spots.


@Sedonasherpa Sedona should have been National Park.  Government forfeits development rights through repeated offenses.  Make NDN job creation for guarding, developing and tourism of these sites (when & where appropriate.)  Buffy St Marie sang "now that my life's to be known as your heritage" but those too blind to see cannot protect their adopted heritage.


@mav.maveth NDN ancestors are more active in this dimension than other ancestors.  Why I do not know.  I for one can no longer accept Bible truth on this count.  NDN ancestors have saved me and mine from death many X.  So I do not worship them but I am mindful or at least try to be.  They R always in our thoughts and in life we consider their preferences in much that we do from cooking to child-rearing - how we work . . . .   I have tried to post this truth multiple times but VOICE NATION keeps rejecting.  WHY?  1 not red apple plus 1 IHOP here.


@mav.maveth god bless u and may u be re educated zuni is were the heart of the earth residedes and ur comment is a insault to.ur own life and.burial site. Year round zunis pray fr ignorat people that pay no mind to indigenous people like use we were nt brought here on a bus, plane or ship we originated fr here this is our gods creation and gift , death and living deserve respect learn it live it. Take a walk in zuni and see how.real humble people live without , ways of ur world because when all is said and done we were prayn and fasting so u cud be made outta ur daddys nut stain, do research before commenting stop being cofused and fake and see were u originated from death waits for everyone and when its ur time crush ur own skull n tell me how u feel after and post it.



I can appreciate your sentiment, land should be put to the service of the living when it is practicable and appropriate. However, please do not fail to realize that the Zuni and Hopi, as well as all other Indians who claim these remains as their ancestors are in fact real, living people.

I think the article makes it clear that they derive something useful from the continued preservation of such sites. I won't be so presumptuous as to say I understand specifically what this site means to them, but I'll venture to say that most humans, no matter what culture they belong to, regard spiritual satisfaction as an important part of life. So is land only useful if it is growing things or used to make things? Is there no value in places to reflect, to remember those who went before us? Places to be human? Or places that we intentionally don't visit or use, rather just allow them to follow their natural course without us?

The problem is that allowing this ancient site to remain in place did not have to conflict with putting land to use for a fishing pond. Why this specific location for the pond and not somewhere else? Surely there are suitable locations nearby that aren't on top of ancient burials. Both "uses" could have been easily accommodated if the slightest amount of respect had factored into the agencies' planning process. It did not, and now we have neither pond nor intact sacred site.

I would also challenge your characterization of these cultures as "obsessed with death." They have always struck me as extraordinarily vibrant and resilient. We are talking about people who by all historical rights should no longer exist thanks to outside persecution. Yet, they remain, and among them are some of the most joyful and generous people I have ever known.

For the record, I am not in any way opposed to the idea of building this pond. I applaud it, in fact. I only wish it had been executed with a shred of respect.

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