In 18th- and 19th-century Europe, during the alleged Age of Enlightenment, telling someone that he needed to have his head examined in no way carried the contemporary connotation of "be a good boy and take your Thorazine." Back in pre-photography times, having your head examined was the height of scientific engagement, since the pseudo-science of phrenology was the rage. Phrenology is the woo-woo, now thoroughly discredited "science" of determining human personality traits, mental capabilities, and general intangible characteristics (including criminal proclivities and racial inferiority) by mapping the lumps, bumps, and sumps... More >>>