Pack Mentality

Silver City, New Mexico

Dave Parsons approached the microphone, silencing the raucous crowd jammed into an auditorium at Western New Mexico State University.

Parsons' turn came more than an hour into a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service hearing that saw one speaker after another use their allotted two minutes to tell three FWS officials why releasing Mexican gray wolves into the Aldo Leopold Wilderness in New Mexico would bring either salvation or damnation to the Western way of life.

Cheers, jeers, boos, moos and wolf howls punctuated the contentious gathering of more than 500. The March 2 Silver City gathering was the second of two hearings held last week to determine whether to release the endangered wolves into the New Mexico wilderness, which abuts Arizona. Most of the comments were emotional pleas of environmentalists and ranchers seeking to return the "world to the way it was" or "save our children" from the dreaded wolf. Standing ovations accompanied the most inflammatory remarks.

But when the moderator announced that Parsons was the next speaker, the histrionics stopped -- at least for a while.

Parsons actually knew what he was talking about.

The Mexican gray wolf recovery program was his baby. At least it was until last fall, when he fell victim to a bureaucratic power struggle that left him without a job after 25 years with FWS, including the past nine as coordinator of the Mexican gray wolf recovery program.

For years, it was Parsons who was sitting on the stage, conducting hearings for the FWS. On this cold night, he addressed his former colleagues as a private citizen, encouraging them to release the wolves into the wilderness.

The wolves FWS wants to release in New Mexico were recaptured this year in Arizona after two packs killed about a half-dozen livestock. New Mexico ranchers vehemently oppose releasing any wolves in the state, especially wolves that have killed cattle.

But Parsons said that is precisely why these wolves should be released into the roadless wilderness, which includes more than 700,000 acres of cattle-free terrain. The wilderness, he said, offers the wolves plenty of elk for prey and isolation from humans and cattle.

"The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service can legally move them to any location in that area to resolve conflicts and improve the wolves' chances for survival," Parsons told the panel to rousing cheers from wolf supporters.

But well-organized wolf opponents wouldn't let Parsons' debut as a citizen wolf advocate end easily.

As Parsons walked down an aisle toward the back of the auditorium, he was confronted by J. Zane Walley, a self-described journalist and member of the Paragon Foundation, an Alamogordo, New Mexico-based group that claims to defend constitutional rights.

During the first wolf hearing, held the evening before in the New Mexico village of Reserve, Walley had unleashed a bombastic statement before the same panel with a standing-room-only crowd of about 250 ranchers and environmentalists.

"What we generally do is sue federal agencies," Walley had said to thunderous applause.

He pointed at FWS biologist Wendy Brown and yelled, "Wendy Brown, when one of these children die up here because of these wolves, how are you going to feel?"

The week before the hearings, Walley hosted an anti-wolf rally in Glenwood, a small community on the banks of the San Francisco River where hunting, ranching and outfitting are the pillars of the economy. According to local news accounts, more than 1,000 people attended the February 26 gathering to plot strategy for the hearings.

Apparently, one of the tactics Walley planned to use was intimidation.

Walley got his chance in Silver City.

After Parsons concluded his remarks, Walley blocked Parsons' path and was joined by several ranchers who surrounded Parsons. Walley could be heard cursing about "the goddamned wolves."

"I don't know if you can call it a threat," Parsons said moments after the confrontation, "but he said, 'I hate your fucking ass.' And the guy beside him said he's not the only one that feels that way."

(This reporter approached to photograph and record the confrontation. Without provocation, Walley punched this reporter in the stomach. After a brief exchange of words, police escorted this reporter and Walley outside where, after at first denying throwing a punch, Walley finally admitted that he had, and apologized in front of Silver City police.)

The wolf-release program began in January 1998, when 11 wolves in three packs were turned loose in Arizona, in the Apache National Forest near Alpine. Five of those wolves were shot. Since the program began, 42 wolves have been included in the wild population. As of last week, eight wolves remain in the wild. Eleven wolves that were involved in cattle depredation have been recaptured and are eligible for possible rerelease in the Leopold wilderness.

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John Dougherty
Contact: John Dougherty