Detail of Suikang Zhao's Hands located at the Dorsey Lane/Apache Boulevard station.EXPAND
Detail of Suikang Zhao's Hands located at the Dorsey Lane/Apache Boulevard station.
Lynn Trimble

From Phoenix to Mesa, Here's Your Guide to Public Art on the Light Rail

Looking for a diverse assortment of art by artists in and beyond Arizona? Consider jumping on the Valley Metro Light Rail, where you'll find dozens of artworks from terrazzo floors infused with historical themes to towering sculptures inspired by local plants and people. To get the full effect, travel the light rail during both day and evening, so you can enjoy the many works that are illuminated after dark. Here's a guide to what you'll find along light rail routes in Phoenix, Tempe, and Mesa.

Matthew and Maria Salenger’s Dunlap Venue installation located at the 19th Avenue/Dunlap Avenue station park-and-ride lot.EXPAND
Matthew and Maria Salenger’s Dunlap Venue installation located at the 19th Avenue/Dunlap Avenue station park-and-ride lot.
Lynn Trimble

Matthew & Maria Salenger
coLAB Studio
Dunlap Venue
19th Avenue/Dunlap Avenue

Tempe architects and coLAB Studio founders Matthew and Maria Salenger created two installations for the 19th Avenue/Dunlap station. For the station’s park-and-ride area, they designed nine lemon yellow cones featuring laser-cut images – inspired by drawings made by local students asked to re-imagine their schools – that are suspended from a 3,600-square-foot open canopy. For the station platform, they created red raspberry-colored metal panels featuring architectural designs created for Phoenix during the last century but never built.

Deborah Mersky’s Nectar Corridor located at the 19th Avenue/Northern Avenue station.EXPAND
Deborah Mersky’s Nectar Corridor located at the 19th Avenue/Northern Avenue station.
Lynn Trimble

Deborah Mersky
Nectar Corridor
19th Avenue/Northern Avenue

Texas artist Deborah Mersky designed bright yellow metal screens and terrazzo carpets set in concrete, which reference the importance of pollination and the fact that migration is an experience shared by humans and other creatures. Together, they present imagery of cactus, blooming flowers, bats, birds, bees, and moths – each reminding viewers of the essential role traveling toward particular destinations plays within nature.

Franka Diehnelt and Claudia Reisenberger’s Aritz Ona located at the 19th Avenue/Glendale Avenue station.EXPAND
Franka Diehnelt and Claudia Reisenberger’s Aritz Ona located at the 19th Avenue/Glendale Avenue station.
Lynn Trimble

Franka Diehnelt & Claudia Reisenberger
Merge Conceptual Design
Aritz Ona
19th Avenue/Glendale Avenue

California artists and co-owners of the artist collective Merge Conceptual Design Franka Diehnelt and Claudia Reisenberger created an installation inspired by the possible origin of the name “Arizona” in a Basque word for “the good oak tree.” The installation comprises five abstract trees with metal sequin leaves that throw shadows onto the station platform in order to replicate the feel of taking a nature walk.

Detail of Robert Adams' public art located at the Montebello Avenue/19th Avenue station.EXPAND
Detail of Robert Adams' public art located at the Montebello Avenue/19th Avenue station.
Lynn Trimble

Robert Adams
Montebello Avenue/19th Avenue

Phoenix artist Robert Adams worked with the architect for the initial terminus of the light rail to create a sleek, modern aesthetic that includes 76 dichromatic panels painted with metallic purple paint installed atop station columns. They’re perforated in various sizes and locations to create a moiré effect. Look for more of Adams’ work when you visit the Phoenix Art Museum or Phoenix Theatre, where a long passageway features his Hall of Mirrors with shifting red and blue lighting.

Detail of Josh Garber's Lucent located at the 19th Avenue/Camelback Road station.EXPAND
Detail of Josh Garber's Lucent located at the 19th Avenue/Camelback Road station.
Lynn Trimble

Josh Garber
Lucent
19th Avenue/Camelback Road

Chicago artist Josh Garber created a 30-foot sculpture called Lucent comprising a series of segments, with each rising out of the segment below to create “an abstract, organic edifice.” The sculpture’s exterior surface, created with more than 40,000 aluminum bars, reflects the natural light as it shifts through the day. At night, the work is illuminated by colored light along the bottom portion of each section. The design was inspired by conversations with community members who spoke of wanting a “jewel” for their neighborhood that could be spotted from a distance.

Detail of Nubia Owens' public art located at the Seventh Avenue/Camelback Road station.EXPAND
Detail of Nubia Owens' public art located at the Seventh Avenue/Camelback Road station.
Lynn Trimble

Nubia Owens
Seventh Avenue/Camelback Road

Phoenix artist Nubia Owens created more than 200 terrazzo pavers that wind through various parts of the platform, using imagery that “ranges from the straightforward to the metaphysical” and from “obvious to abstract.” Several reference the local environment or the natural world, and all are meant to reinforce the idea that it’s sometimes better to travel than to arrive.

Detail of Ilan Averbuch's Landmark located at the Central Avenue/Camelback Road station.EXPAND
Detail of Ilan Averbuch's Landmark located at the Central Avenue/Camelback Road station.
Lynn Trimble

Ilan Averbuch
Landmark, Trough, Seat and Tree
Central Avenue/Camelback Road

New York artist Ilan Averbuch created a 24-foot ring of desert stones called Landmark, which references the Hopi belief that life is a circle we all enter at a particular point. He also created two smaller-scale sculptures installed nearby, titled Trough and Seat and Tree, inspired by “the area’s original canals and water systems."

Detail of Al Price's Hyperbolics located at the Campbell Avenue/Central Avenue station.EXPAND
Detail of Al Price's Hyperbolics located at the Campbell Avenue/Central Avenue station.
Lynn Trimble

Al Price
Hyperbolics
Campbell Avenue/Central Avenue

Local artist and former teacher Al Price used the shape of a hyperbolic parabola to create a three-dimensional grid meant to convey a sense of undulation and flow. Price created Hyperbolics using 32 stainless-steel truss arcs woven into four twisted waves.

Detail of Mary Lucking's Here We Are located at the Indian School Road/Central Avenue station.EXPAND
Detail of Mary Lucking's Here We Are located at the Indian School Road/Central Avenue station.
Lynn Trimble

Mary Lucking
Here We Are
Indian School Road/Central Avenue

Tucson artist Mary Lucking’s Here We Are is installed adjacent to Steele Indian School Park, which was once home to the Phoenix Indian School. Lucking tells the stories of those who lived here during the mid-20th century using glass panels, terrazzo flooring, and columns containing photo panels.

Detail of Thomas Sayre's Tapping Time located at the Osborn Road/Central Avenue station.EXPAND
Detail of Thomas Sayre's Tapping Time located at the Osborn Road/Central Avenue station.
Lynn Trimble

Tom Sayre
Tapping Time
Osborn Road/Central Avenue

North Carolina artist Tom Sayre created Tapping Time by bronze casting various types of foot- and shoe-prints that reflect the diversity of people using the light rail. Some are barefoot, others in work boots. Some wear footwear traditional in other countries. It’s meant to conjure the images of 100 people boarding or exiting a light rail train at the station. Those who look carefully will see imprints of moccasins, flip flops, cowboy boots, and military boots, as well as bronze markings for a cane, wheelchair, and stroller.

Detail of Brian Goldbloom's public art located at the Thomas Road/Central Avenue station.EXPAND
Detail of Brian Goldbloom's public art located at the Thomas Road/Central Avenue station.
Lynn Trimble

Brian Goldbloom
Thomas Road/Central Avenue

Washington artist Brian Goldbloom created a sequential series of carvings set on cylinders that allow viewers to turn them as they explore images showing the “eventual emergence by degrees of the presence of water, indications of life, and finally, details of an encroaching civilization." He also created several granite benches showing the ways nature is touched by encroaching civilization.

Detail of Jamex and Einar De La Torre's Appropriated Identity located at the Encanto Boulevard/Central Avenue station.EXPAND
Detail of Jamex and Einar De La Torre's Appropriated Identity located at the Encanto Boulevard/Central Avenue station.
Lynn Trimble

Jamex and Einar De La Torre
Appropriated Identity
Encanto Boulevard/Central Avenue

Artists Jamex and Einar De La Torre, who travel between studios in Mexico and California, created an installation called Appropriated Identity, which features local landmarks coupled with pre-Columbian Indian as well as contemporary cultural motifs. Their installation also includes rotating bronze boxes with narrative imagery inspired by Mayan glyphs, as well as a bronze sculpture meant as a modern iteration on ancient Mayan sculpture.

Detail of Michael Maglich's A Thousand Points of Reference located at the McDowell Road/Central Avenue station.EXPAND
Detail of Michael Maglich's A Thousand Points of Reference located at the McDowell Road/Central Avenue station.
Lynn Trimble

Michael Maglich
A Thousand Points of Light, Artist on a Hot Tile Roof
McDowell Road/Central Avenue

Phoenix artist Michael Maglich, who passed away in 2007, left behind several works of public art, including his sculptural pieces on the light rail station near Burton Barr Central Library collectively called A Thousand Points of Light and Artist on a Hot Tile Roof, which are full of references to artists and art history, as well as humor. You’ll find more Maglich work — his series of bronze bolo ties created for Phoenix Public Art — installed near a section of the light rail that runs past the Phoenix Convention Center.

Detail of Peter Richards' La Sombra Danza located at the Roosevelt Street/Central Avenue station.EXPAND
Detail of Peter Richards' La Sombra Danza located at the Roosevelt Street/Central Avenue station.
Lynn Trimble

Peter Richards
La Sombra Danza
Roosevelt/Central Avenue

San Francisco artist Peter Richards created his La Sombra Danza shade structure for a triangular plaza in Roosevelt Row, which has been activated by local artists with performances including The Light Rail Plays. Richards’ two-layered, kinetic structure includes perforated metal panels that create fun shadows on nearby spaces as the sun shifts around them.

Detail of Reis Neimi's public art installation at the Van Buren Road/Central Avenue station.EXPAND
Detail of Reis Neimi's public art installation at the Van Buren Road/Central Avenue station.
Lynn Trimble

Reis Neimi
Van Buren Street/Central Avenue, Van Buren Street/First Avenue

Washington artist Reis Neimi created a stainless-steel ribbon running along 320-foot railings on either side of the platform. Hand-forged with various textures and grains, they’re meant to convey the sense of movement created by the region’s bustling student population. Neimi’s scroll design references architectural elements of historic buildings as well as classic western leatherwork.

Detail of Downtown Justice by Stephen Farley located at the Jefferson Street/First Avenue station in Phoenix.EXPAND
Detail of Downtown Justice by Stephen Farley located at the Jefferson Street/First Avenue station in Phoenix.
Lynn Trimble

Stephen Farley
Downtown Justice, Downtown Work and Play
Washington Street/Central Avenue, Jefferson Street/First Avenue

Tucson artist Stephen Farley created Downtown Justice for the Jefferson/First Avenue station, which features enamel panels depicting historic scenes and artifacts — as well as a trio of large terrazzo medallions on the platform which depict key justice-related figures, plus “municipal and court references.” They’re meant to remind viewers that justice is a matter of conscious choices rather than a mere theoretical construct. For the Washington Street/Central Avenue station, Farley created Downtown Work and Play, comprising porcelain enamel panels depicting scenes of downtown life such as working and shopping.

Detail of one of Cliff Garten's Station Beacons, which are located at the Third Street/Washington Street and Third Street/Jefferson Street stations.EXPAND
Detail of one of Cliff Garten's Station Beacons, which are located at the Third Street/Washington Street and Third Street/Jefferson Street stations.
Lynn Trimble

Cliff Garten
Station Beacons
Third Street/Washington Street, Third Street/Jefferson Street

Los Angeles artist Cliff Garten created Brancusi-inspired towers bearing repetitive linear elements, which he calls Station Beacons. The silver towers are infused at night with colored lights, which are especially intriguing when viewed from up close and underneath as if looking into a giant kaleidoscope of neon color.

Detail of Victor Mario Zaballa's Arizona Quilts, which are located at the 12th Street/Washington Street and 12th Street/Jefferson Street stations.EXPAND
Detail of Victor Mario Zaballa's Arizona Quilts, which are located at the 12th Street/Washington Street and 12th Street/Jefferson Street stations.
Lynn Trimble

Victor Mario Zaballa
Arizona Quilts
12th Street/Washington Street, 12th Street/Jefferson Street

San Francisco artist Victor Mario Zaballa gathered stories and photograph from neighborhoods near this station, which he incorporated into handpainted tiles mirroring quilt squares for an installation titled Arizona Quilts. His images reflect the neighborhood’s diversity while paying homage to the role of quilts in world cultures. His railings bordering each tiled quilt square mirror Mexican paper-cut art.

Detail of Kevin Berry's City in Transition located at the 24th Street/Washington Street and 24th Street/Jefferson Street stations.EXPAND
Detail of Kevin Berry's City in Transition located at the 24th Street/Washington Street and 24th Street/Jefferson Street stations.
Lynn Trimble

Kevin Berry
City in Transition
24th Street/Washington Street, 24th Street/Jefferson Street

Phoenix artist Kevin Berry created two large sand-cast bronze panels that reference “the site’s early history and transformation” as well as “an interpretation of the current landscape.” Featured imagery for his City in Transition includes stream irrigation, industrial mechanics, skyscrapers, homes, and cellular communication towers — as well as a setting sun and rising moon.

Sunspot by Stuart Keeler and Michael Machnic located at the 38th Street/Washington Street station.EXPAND
Sunspot by Stuart Keeler and Michael Machnic located at the 38th Street/Washington Street station.
Lynn Trimble

Stuart Keeler and Michael Machnic
Sunspot
38th Street/Washington Street

Pacific Northwest artists Stuart Keeler and Michael Machnic created an astrological tool called Sunspot that's meant to mark the passage of time through the shifting path of the sun. Its wing forms were inspired by “the nearby airport and aerospace industry,” and each has a small cutout through which sun shines onto a corresponding metal disc on the platform at noon on the 21st day of each month. The work references both the Hokoham culture celebrated at the nearby Pueblo Grande Museum, and the study of astronomy, math, and history at Gateway Community College.

Detail of Cloud Canopy by Mona Higuchi located at the 44th Street/Washington Street station.EXPAND
Detail of Cloud Canopy by Mona Higuchi located at the 44th Street/Washington Street station.
Lynn Trimble

Mona Higuchi
Cloud Canopy
44th Street/Washington Street

Phoenix artist Mona Higuchi created Cloud Canopy, a series of metal screens with circular cutouts that create shadows on the platform as the light shines through them. Her cutouts reference “a multi-ethnic tradition of linear cloud imagery” as well as Hohokam scroll patterns evident in works exhibited at the nearby Pueblo Grande Museum.

Detail of Laurie Lundquist's Papago Portal located at the Priest Drive/Washington Street station.EXPAND
Detail of Laurie Lundquist's Papago Portal located at the Priest Drive/Washington Street station.
Lynn Trimble

Laurie Lundquist
Papago Portal
Priest Drive/Washington Street

Tempe artist Laurie Lundquist created a metaphorical canal referencing the nearby headquarters of the Salt River Project. Red granite walls bear canal-related text, and pennies that reflect the light are suspended from wavy metal structures overhead. The installation, titled Papago Portal, also includes granite pavers with text referencing “points of interest visible from the station.”

Detail of Tempe Light Rail Transit Bridge, a collaboration between artist Buster Simpson and the bridge design team, located at Tempe Town Lake.EXPAND
Detail of Tempe Light Rail Transit Bridge, a collaboration between artist Buster Simpson and the bridge design team, located at Tempe Town Lake.
Lynn Trimble

Buster Simpson
Tempe Light Rail Transit Bridge
Tempe Town Lake Bridge

Seattle artist Buster Simpson worked with bridge designers to create a light-infused structure installed adjacent to a historic railroad bridge. Steel mesh that’s transparent during the day is lit each night by thousands of LEDs with shifting colors and patterns. Simpson’s installation also includes abutments “with a mix of historical, scientific, and natural references,” a concrete wall created with dried and cracked mud from the Salt River, porcelain enamel panels incorporating “historic bridge photos and flood plain documents,” and a triangular sculpture made of mock-trusses.

Detail of Catherine Widgery's Shadow Play located at the Mill Avenue/Third Street station.EXPAND
Detail of Catherine Widgery's Shadow Play located at the Mill Avenue/Third Street station.
Lynn Trimble

Catherine Widgery
Shadow Play
Mill Avenue/Third Street

Massachusetts artist Catherine Widgery’s Shadow Play includes white-on-white outlines of leaves and tree branches on overhead canopies, in addition to glass panels etched with bitmap forms to create the shapes of a mesquite tree. Widgery conceived the work as a light fossil, suggesting that these trees may one day disappear from the desert.

Detail of Ted Savinar's Land Marks located at the Veterans Way/College Avenue station.EXPAND
Detail of Ted Savinar's Land Marks located at the Veterans Way/College Avenue station.
Lynn Trimble

Tad Savinar
Land Marks
Veterans Way/College Avenue

Portland artist Ted Savinar created work mindful of the station’s proximity to ASU and Tempe's “A” Mountain. The station is dotted with 18 bronze sculptures set atop nine stone-clad pedestals. These sculptures for his installation, titled Land Marks, depict landmarks including Hayden Flour Mill, ASU Gammage, Tovrea Castle, and many more. Each pedestal features quotations from visually impaired residents about their experiences with these landmarks.

Sphere, which is part of Bill Will and Norie Sato's The Spirit of Inquiry located at the University Drive/Rural Road station.EXPAND
Sphere, which is part of Bill Will and Norie Sato's The Spirit of Inquiry located at the University Drive/Rural Road station.
Lynn Trimble

Bill Will and Norie Sato
The Spirit of Inquiry, Cabinet of Curiosities
University Drive/Rural Road

Portland artist Bill Will and Seattle artist Norie Sato created an installation called The Spirit of Inquiry, which comprises six elements including a spherical sculpture bearing “etched text of great thinkers” (including Arizona Poet Laureate Alberto Rios) and two shelves bearing objects related to art, science, education, and history. The station also features their whimsical Cabinet of Curiosities, which includes shelves dotted with bronze replicas of items including a doll’s head, light bulb, bowling ball, and more.

Detail of Dan Corson's Saguaro Soul located at the Dorsey Lane/Apache Boulevard station.EXPAND
Detail of Dan Corson's Saguaro Soul located at the Dorsey Lane/Apache Boulevard station.
Lynn Trimble

Christine Bourdette, Dan Corson, Benson Shaw, Suikang Zhao
Points of View, Saguaro Soul, Energize, Hands
Dorsey Lane/Apache Boulevard

A series of four light rail stations along Apache Boulevard feature works by several artists. Works located at this station include New York artist Suikang Zhao’s towering 21-foot-tall Hands with lacy interwoven elements suggesting conversations in multiple languages, which is a theme recurrent in her work. They also include Seattle artist Dan Corson, whose chrome Saguaro Soul depicts a hollowed-out section of cactus, and Seattle artist Benson Shaw's Energize pavers, which share brief snippets of anecdotes shared by those living in the Apache neighborhood. The station also has mosaic boxes filled with human and animal figures, which comprise the work Points of View by Portland artist Christine Bourdette.

Detail of Suikang Zhao's Carpet of Languages located at the McClintock Drive/Apache Boulevard station.EXPAND
Detail of Suikang Zhao's Carpet of Languages located at the McClintock Drive/Apache Boulevard station.
Lynn Trimble

Christine Bourdette, Dan Corson, Benson Shaw, Suikang Zhao
Life & Growth
McClintock Drive/Apache Boulevard

Works at this station, collectively titled Life & Growth, explore “themes of change and growth in the community, its people, commerce and lifestyles." New York artist Suikang Zhao created a pair of 20-foot-tall pillars that stand at each end of the station. The pillars, which are titled Splitting Columns, blend translations of Native American texts into multiple languages — thus referencing “the influx of immigrants and cultures into the area.” Seattle artist Dan Corson created Water Chandeliers using light blue five-gallon water bottles that glow at night. Another Seattle artist, Benson Shaw, created an installation called Grow comprising glass-inlaid pavers referencing the region’s agricultural roots. Portland artist Christine Bourdette created Time Cycles comprising several hourglass-shaped openings filled with ceramic works referencing growing corn along with the rising and setting of the sun.

Detail of Benson Shaw's Traverse located at the Smith-Martin/Apache Boulevard station.EXPAND
Detail of Benson Shaw's Traverse located at the Smith-Martin/Apache Boulevard station.
Lynn Trimble

Christine Bourdette, Dan Corson, Benson Shaw, Suikang Zhao
Domestic Fabric
Smith-Martin/Apache Boulevard

Works by Portland artist Christine Bourdette, New York artist Suikang Zhao, and Seattle artists Dan Corson and Benson Shaw located at this station explore “prominent Hispanic traditions, the weave of languages, and the strong family structure” and taken together are titled Domestic Fabric. Shaw’s Traverse pavers feature a mix of facts about local landmarks and memories of local residents. Bourdette’s Domestic Structure comprises ceramic tile works that reference family trees and the Virgin of Guadalupe. Zhao’s Writing Vine placed above the station’s canopy references layers of language and communication. Corson’s Carpet of Languages uses real and fictional text related to grandmothers with medallions that reference “more than 70 languages spoken in the area.”

Detail of Christine Bourdette's Links & Circuitous Path located at the Price 101 Freeway/Apache Boulevard station.EXPAND
Detail of Christine Bourdette's Links & Circuitous Path located at the Price 101 Freeway/Apache Boulevard station.
Lynn Trimble

Christine Bourdette, Dan Corson, Benson Shaw
Division and Reconnection
Price 101 Freeway/Apache Boulevard

Portland artist Christine Bourdette and Seattle artists Dan Corson and Benson Shaw created works for this station that are collectively called Division and Reconnection. Bourdette’s ceramic works titled Links & the Circuitous Path feature links and serpentine shapes “addressing the flow of change.” Corson’s v is located above the canopy line and comprises perforated louvres which are complemented by neon tubes. Shaw’s Merge includes blue pavers with images and text culled from Tempe’s “canal history and auto culture.”

Detail of Seed Giver by Brad Konick located at the Sycamore/Main Street station in Mesa.EXPAND
Detail of Seed Giver by Brad Konick located at the Sycamore/Main Street station in Mesa.
Lynn Trimble

Brad Konick
Seed Giver
Sycamore/Main Street

Phoenix artist Brad Konick created Seed Giver, a towering sculpture modeled after stacking baskets which references both ancient native cultures and modern technology. One portion of the tower depicts an open seed pod, and the installation also includes paving inlays meant to signify scattered seeds.

Detail of Daniel Martin Diaz's Emergence located at the Alma School Road/Main Street station in Mesa.EXPAND
Detail of Daniel Martin Diaz's Emergence located at the Alma School Road/Main Street station in Mesa.
Lynn Trimble

Daniel Martin Diaz
Emergence
Alma School/Main Street

Tucson artist Daniel Martin Diaz created cut metal screens depicting organic and scientific patterns that reference desert communities. His Emergence includes a kinetic pinwheel sculpture that’s responsive to the wind, as well as imagery inspired by the natural design of the interior of the saguaro and other types of cacti.

Detail of Mesaflora by Ed Carpenter, located at the Country Club Road/Main Street station in Mesa.EXPAND
Detail of Mesaflora by Ed Carpenter, located at the Country Club Road/Main Street station in Mesa.
Lynn Trimble

Ed Carpenter
Mesaflora
Country Club Rad/Main Street

Portland artist Ed Carpenter created a 30-foot-tall steel and glass work titled Mesaflora in reference to the region’s blooming plant life. The piece features dichroic glass which shines and reflects in the sun, but has a different visual presence at night when illuminated with lights.

Detail of Ralph Helmick's Drawing Room located at the Center Street/Main Street station in Mesa.EXPAND
Detail of Ralph Helmick's Drawing Room located at the Center Street/Main Street station in Mesa.
Lynn Trimble

Ralph Helmick
Drawing Room
Center/Main Street

Massachusetts artist Ralph Helmick created a 50-foot-high hollow, conical tower comprising silhouettes of the faces of various community members. Drawing Room can be viewed both from afar and by standing inside the tower. At night, it’s illuminated with projected lighting sometimes in colors associated with specific community events or causes.

Detail of Mary Lucking's Sixteen Stores of One Home Town in Mesa.EXPAND
Detail of Mary Lucking's Sixteen Stores of One Home Town in Mesa.
Lynn Trimble

Mary Lucking
Sixteen Stories of One Home Town
Mesa Drive/Main Street

Phoenix artist Mary Lucking created Sixteen Stories of One Home Town, which features 16 porcelain panels with storybook imagery. Two 21-foot steel panels bookend the central portion, which depicts a mother and father reading and is meant to convey the passing of stories through the generations.

Find more information about Valley Metro Light Rail art in the 2016 online art guide available on the Valley Metro website.

Editor's note: This post has been updated from its original version, which first appeared in December 2015.

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